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小米:你应该避免的无麸质谷物

由Loren Cordain,Ph.D.,Paleo饮食的创始人Emeritus教授bobapp综合
2014年12月8日
小米:无麸质谷物,你应该避免图像

Over the past five years, more and more people worldwide have become aware of the Paleo Diet, which really is not a diet at all, but rather a lifelong way of eating to reduce the risk of chronic disease and maximize health and well-being. One of the fundamental principles of The Paleo Diet is to eliminate or drastically reduce consumption of cereal grains, whether they are refined or whole. Currently, 8 cereal grains (wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, oats, rye, and millet) provide 56% of the food energy and 50% of the protein consumed on earth.3.However, from an evolutionary perspective, these foods were rarely or never consumed by our hunter gatherer ancestors.3.

当我第一次提出建议时,如果我们在1999年减少或消除谷物消费,我们将是一个更健康的人,3.我收到了,仍然接受了营养社区中的一些专业人士的批评,因为他们认为消除整个食物组(谷物)是营养不良的“will produce numerous dietary deficiencies.”This statement is not supported by any experimental evidence. In fact, the contrary is true. As I have previously pointed out, elimination of cereal grains actually increases the nutrient density of the 13 vitamins and minerals most lacking in the U.S. diet4,5- 提供谷物被新鲜水果,蔬菜,肉类,家禽,鱼类,海鲜和鸡蛋所取代。

Besides this fundamental lack of knowledge concerning thenutrient density of cereal grains, nearly all classically trained nutritionists have little or no appreciation for the antinutrients present in grains. As the name implies, antinutrients are dietary substances which interfere with our normal metabolism and physiology. Cereal grains are generally concentrated sources of numerous antinutrients and may produce undesirable health effects,3.特别是当作为日常钉的消耗时。

在美国“无谷蛋白食物已经成为增加ibly popular in recent years as many people recognize that they simply feel better by eliminating the 3 gluten containing grains (wheat, rye and barley). Gluten conscious consumers frequently replace wheat, rye and barley with non-gluten containing grains (rice, corn, oats, sorghum and millet) in the mistaken belief that these 5 non-gluten grains are harmless. However, as I have previously pointed out, even the 5 non-gluten containing grains should be avoided for a variety of reasons.3.Specifically, I’ll detail below how millet adversely affects iodine metabolism and may cause goiter (swelling of the neck) when eaten regularly.

罪魁祸首:小米

Unless you are a vegan, a vegetarian or are in search of gluten-free grains, most Americans and westerners have never tasted millet. Nevertheless, you don’t have to look very far to find this cereal grain (grass seed) at most health food stores. If you only dine upon millet dishes once in a blue moon, it will have zero repercussions upon your health, but be aware that millet is a nutrient poor, antinutrient laden food – the regular consumption of which may cause multiple dietary deficiencies and nutrient related diseases,3.including impairment of iodine metabolism andrisk for goiter

Millet is not a single plant species (as are most other cereal grains), but rather interpreted broadly may comprise about 500 species of grass seeds worldwide.13.Only a few species of millet are commonly cultivated as food crops. Worldwide, pearl millet (Pennisetum blaucum.) is the most widely produced millet15.and is cultivated extensively in Africa and India. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), 福尼奥米小米 (Digitaria exilis)和foxtail小米(脚趾斜体) are also important crop species in developing countries.13., 15然而,在全球经济重要性方面,小米是一个小谷物谷物。全球生产小麦或米饭的1%。13.

因为小米需要很少的水,并且是抗旱性的,它们在世界干旱和半干旱地区良好,如在非洲撒哈拉沙漠和印度和亚洲的干旱地区周围的国家。此外,小米是这些地区的农民的有吸引力的农业作物,因为在良好的条件下,它可以每年产生两次收获13.并且对害虫和病原体耐药。

In the Sudan region (Darfur Province) of Africa, dietary surveys show that millet consumption in three communities (Kas, Tawaila and Nyala) was the primary source of food calories, respectively yielding 73.6%, 66.7%, and 37.1% of total daily energy.20.In this study, the occurrence of goiter was outrageously high – greater than almost anywhere else in the world. The incidence of goiter for girls in these three communities was 75%, 55%, and 13%, respectively; for boys it was 46%, 35%, and 10%, respectively. Similar high rates of goiter and thyroid disorders have been reported for school children in the Gujarat district of Western India where millet is a staple food.2

Millet Consumption, Iodine Deficiency and Goiter

Wherever and whenever millet becomes a staple food worldwide, the incidence of goiter increases and abnormalities of thyroid function and iodine metabolism occur2,7,16-20此外,大鼠,宠物鸟类和山羊和组织(体外)研究中的动物研究明确表明,这种谷物在引起甲状腺肿,甲状腺异常和碘代谢的损害方面发挥着重要作用。1,8,10-12,22

碘是人类的一种必需营养素,无论如何,我们最明显地发展甲状腺肿(甲状腺关于颈部的甲状腺的扩大)。此外,lack of iodine in the diet impairs cognitive development in growing infants and children,在孕妇和大脑中流产和大脑和神经系统功能障碍的成人。24, 25

最初,据认为,甲状腺肿主要来自我们的食品供应和水中碘的缺乏。因此,在美国,在其他地方,最膳食盐(NaCl)已经用碘强化。碘代谢的未经申报方面是即使碘的膳食摄入量也足够,仍然会发生这种营养素的代谢缺陷。7.虽然大多数营养师几乎不知道,但在小米中发现的元素代表了损害碘代谢的强大抗肺炎,经常导致碘缺乏患者和症状。

Goitrogens in Millet

Goitrogens饮食物质损害你roid and iodine metabolism and may ultimately cause the development of goiter. As I have previously alluded, a few scientists in the nutritional community early on appreciated that high millet diets promoted goiter. However, it was not completely understood how millet produced its goitrogenic effect. Subsequent discoveries and experiments over the past 35 years now show that compounds known as flavonoids in millets are responsible for causing iodine dysfunction and may in turn produce goiter when consumed as staples.6,7,21,23

All millets are concentrated sources of compounds known as polyphenolics, some of which are referred to as flavonoids. Numerous flavonoids have been found in millets including apigenin, luteolin , kaempferol and vitexin; all of which severely损害甲状腺功能和碘代谢6,10-12,21,23and cause goiter in animal and tissue models.1,8,10-12,22虽然尚未完全明白,但是来自小米的黄酮类化合物似乎通过体内的大多数细胞抑制碘摄取,损害甲状腺激素的分泌,并通过酶甲基氧化酶减少碘的组织。6,7,10,23

Additional Antinutrients in Millets

虽然一些科学文章表明小米可能具有正面的健康影响,26,27these papers and authors seem to be completely unaware of the numerous antinutrients found in millets and their potential for disrupting nutrition and health.

Let’s begin with the mistaken notion that millets are good sources of calcium.26,27在纸上的化学分析后,这种陈述可能是真的,但在体内(体内),没有什么可以从真相进一步。钙,以及可能存在于米尔的铁和锌实际上在我们的身体中吸收很差,因为P.hytates, tannins and other compoundsP.revent their assimilation.28-32因此,高谷物籽粒饮食米勒是否衍生,经常导致多种营养缺陷,包括钙,铁和锌。3.

除了高植物,黄酮类化合物和多酚含量外,小米还浓缩其他抗抑制剂,包括蛋白酶抑制剂(胰蛋白酶,胰蛋白酶,α淀粉酶和半胱氨酸)33-35and steroidal saponins.3.6, 37谷物谷物蛋白酶抑制剂可能在食用时产生对胰腺的不利影响,3.and saponins are known toincrease intestinal permeability and may contribute to chronic low level systemic inflammation

Taken in its entirety, an overwhelming scientific literature demonstrates that millets are second rate foods that when consumed regularly may adversely affect iodine metabolism and elicit goiter. I’m not completely sure where the USDA dietitians derived their recommendations for whole grain consumption, but it certainly could not have come from their familiarity with the millet literature.

Cordially,

Loren Cordain,Ph.D.,Emeritus教授

References

1. Abel Gadir WS, Adam SE. Development of goitre and enterohepatonephropathy in Nubian Goats fed with pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides). Vet J. 1999 Mar;157(2):178-85.

2. Brahmbhatt S,Brahmbhatt Rm,Boyage Sc。甲状腺超声是碘缺乏症评估的最佳患病率指标:来自古吉拉特(印度西部)的农村/部落学童研究。EUR J Endocrinol。2000年7月143(1):37-46。

3. Cordain L.(1999)。谷物谷物:人类的双刃剑。营养和营养学的世界审查,84:19-73。

4. Cordain L. The nutritional characteristics of a contemporary diet based upon Paleolithic food groups. J Am Neutraceut Assoc 2002; 5:15-24.

5. Cordain L,Eaton SB,Sebastian A,Mann N,Lindeberg S,Watkins Ba,O'Keefe JH,品牌米勒J.Ingins和西方饮食的演变:21世纪的健康影响。AM J Clin Nutr 2005; 81:341-54。

6. de Souza Dos Santos MC, Gonçalves CF, Vaisman M, Ferreira AC, de Carvalho DP. Impact of flavonoids on thyroid function. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Oct;49(10):2495-502

7.。Elnour A, Hambraeus L, Eltom M, Dramaix M, Bourdoux P. Endemic goiter with iodine sufficiency: a possible role for the consumption of pearl millet in the etiology of endemic goiter. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1):59-66.

8. Elnour A, Liedén S, Bourdoux P, Eltom M, Khalid SA, Hambraeus L. Traditional fermentation increases goitrogenic activity in pearl millet. Ann Nutr Metab. 1998;42(6):341-9.

9. Elnour A, Liedén S, Bourdoux P, Eltom M, Khalid SA, Hambraeus L. The goitrogenic effect of two Sudanese pearl millet cultivars in rats. Nutr Res 1997; Mar (17): 533–546.

10. Gaitan E, Cooksey RC, Legan J, Lindsay RH. Antithyroid effects in vivo and in vitro of vitexin: a C-glucosylflavone in millet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Apr;80(4):1144-7.

11. Gaitan E, Lindsay RH, Reichert RD, Ingbar SH, Cooksey RC, Legan J, Meydrech EF, Hill J, Kubota K. Antithyroid and goitrogenic effects of millet: role of C-glycosylflavones. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Apr;68(4):707-14.

12. Gaitan E,Lindsay Rh,Cooksey Rc,Hill J,Reichert Rd,Ingbar Sh。小米中C-糖基硫吡喃酮的甲状腺作用。Prog Clin Biol Res。1988; 280:349-63

13. Hunt HV,Badakshi F,Romanova O,Howe CJ,Jones Mk,Heslop-Harrison JS。在Panicum(Poaceae)的网状进化(Poaceae):Tetraploid Broomcorn Millet,P. Miliaceum的起源。J Exp Bot。2014年7月65(12):3165-75。

14. Lu H, Zhang J, Liu KB, Wu N, Li Y, Zhou K, Ye M, Zhang T, Zhang H, Yang X, Shen L, Xu D, Li Q. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 5;106(18):7367-72

15.。McDonough CM, Rooney LW, Serna-Saldivar SO. (2000). "The Millets". Food Science and Technology: Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology (CRC Press). 99 2nd ed: 177–210.

16. Medani Am1,Elnour Aa,Saeed Am。尽管有长期的碘缺乏症缺乏症,但在苏丹的特有的GoItre。公牛世界健康器官。2011年2月1; 89(2):121-6。

17. Moreno-Reyes R1, Boelaert M, el Badawi S, Eltom M, Vanderpas JB. Endemic juvenile hypothyroidism in a severe endemic goitre area of Sudan. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1993 Jan;38(1):19-24.

18. [没有作者列出]小米 - 可能是脱毛谷物。Nutr Rev. 1983年4月41日(4):113-6。

19. Osman AK, Basu TK, Dickerson JW. A goitrogenic agent from millet (Pennisetum typhoides) in Darfur Province, Western Sudan. Ann Nutr Metab. 1983;27(1):14-8.

20.。Osman AK, Fatah AA. Factors other than iodine deficiency contributing to the endemicity of goitre in Darfur Province (Sudan). J Hum Nutr. 1981 Aug;35(4):302-9.

21. Sartelet H,Serghat S,Labstein A,Ingenbleek Y,Anton R,Petitfrèree,Aguie-Aguie G,Martige L,Haye B.来自Fonio Millet(Digitaria Exilis)提取的黄酮类化合物揭示了有效的抗胆糖特性。营养。1996年2月12日(2):100-6。

22. Schoemaker NJ,Lumeij JT,Dorrestein Gm,Beynen AC。宠物鸟类的营养有关的问题。Tijdschr Diergeneeskd。1999年1月15日; 124(2):39-43。

23.Schröder-van der Elst JP1,Smit JW,Romijn Ha,Van der Heide D.膳食类黄酮和碘代谢。生物actors。2003; 19(3-4):171-6。

24. Zimmermann MB.The role of iodine in human growth and development. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011 Aug;22(6):645-52.
25.泰勒PN1,Okosieme Oe,Dayan Cm,Lazarus JH。内分泌疾病治疗:碘化碘对温和至中等碘缺乏的影响:系统评价与荟萃分析。EUR J Endocrinol。2013年11月22日; 170(1):R1-R15。DOI:10.1530 / EJE-13-0651。印刷2014年1月

26. Devi PB, Vijayabharathi R, Sathyabama S, Malleshi NG, Priyadarisini VB. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Jun;51(6):1021-40.

27.。Shobana S, Krishnaswamy K, Sudha V, Malleshi NG, Anjana RM, Palaniappan L, Mohan V. Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.): a review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2013;69:1-39.

28. Lestienne I, Besançon P, Caporiccio B, Lullien-Péllerin V, Tréche S. Iron and zinc in vitro availability in pearl millet flours (Pennisetum glaucum) with varying phytate, tannin, and fiber contents. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 20;53(8):3240-7.

29. Lestienne I,Caporiccio B,BesançonP,Rochette I,TrècheS。植物,纤维和单宁对低铁和锌的相对贡献在珍珠米(Pennisetum glaucum)粉和谷粒级分中的体外溶解度。JAgric Food Chem。2005年10月19日; 53(21):8342-8。

3.0 Udayasekhara Rao P, Deosthale YG. In vitro availability of iron and zinc in white and coloured ragi (Eleusine coracana): role of tannin and phytate. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1988;38(1):35-41.

3.1. Suma PF, Urooj A. Nutrients, antinutrients & bioaccessible mineral content (invitro) of pearl millet as influenced by milling. J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Apr;51(4):756-61.

3.2。Archana, Sehgal S, Kawatra A. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1999;53(2):93-8.

33. Pattabiraman TN。胰蛋白酶/胰凝乳蛋白酶抑制剂来自小米。Adv Exp Med Biol。1986; 199:439-48。

34. Shivaraj B,Pattabiraman TN。天然植物酶抑制剂。来自Ragi(Eleusine Coracana Geartn)的异常α-淀粉酶/胰蛋白酶抑制剂的表征。Biochem J. 1981年1月1日; 193(1):29-36。

35. Joshi Bn,Sainani Mn,Bastawade KB,Deshpande VV,Gupta VS,Ranjekar PK。
Pearl millet cysteine protease inhibitor. Evidence for the presence of two distinct sites responsible for anti-fungal and anti-feedent activities. Eur J Biochem. 1999 Oct;265(2):556-63.

3.6. Lee ST, Mitchell RB, Wang Z, Heiss C, Gardner DR, Azadi P. Isolation, characterization, and quantification of steroidal saponins in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Mar 25;57(6):2599-604.

37. Patamalai B,Hejtmancik E,Bridges Ch,Hill DW,营地BJ。睾丸素皂苷素的分离与鉴定。兽医毒蛇。1990年8月32日(4):314-8。

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