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The Wheat Series Part 3: Setting Off the Bacterial Alarm Bells – With or Without the Bacteria

By Trevor Connor, M.S., CEO
June 16, 2015
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Did you miss The Wheat Series Part 1: Wheat and the Immune System?Read it HERE
你错过了小麦系列第2部分:对肠道健康打开障碍吗?Read it HERE

这是一场在数百万年发型的战斗。病毒,细菌和各种各样的病原体寻找一个漂亮的温暖的家园已经进化了越来越复杂的技术来逃避我们的技术immune systems。In response, our immune systems developed an array of specialized cells to launch remarkably targeted attacks at these unwanted invaders.

In the face of this cellular army, pathogens discovered one of their best weapons is a microscopic form of hide-and-seek.

Viruses mimic our bodies so immune cells pass them by.1, 2Meningitis hangs out in the nervous system where immune cells dare not go, and HIV takes up home in immune cells themselves – after, of course, dismantling a few defenses.

These are all ways of telling the immune system “keep moving, nothing to see here.”

But what would happen if instead of looking for a good hiding place, an invader actually tried to set off the immune system alarm bells? More importantly, why would an invader want to do that?

Well, imagine you’re a plant. When some hungry animal looks at you and says “lunch” you can’t really run away. Nor can you fight back. So what do you do?

You make sure that after the animal has its meal, it is sick enough to think twice about ever touching one of your brethren.

Enter小麦。

InPart Oneof this series on wheat, I talked about how the normally sluggish digestive immune system can become inappropriately inflamed and lead to disease. Three things can cause this:肠道渗透率(泄漏肠道); chronic or too high a bacterial load; and dietary antigens.

Wheat has the unique distinction of influencing all three.

The first, intestinal permeability, is promoted by wheat through the release of zonulin.3.-5We covered that inPart Two

Let’s get to Part Three – chronic or too high a bacterial load.

Of course, you’ve probably already realized that wheat is not bacteria. True. But the same way viruses mimic our bodies, wheat has evolved ways to “mimic” bacteria. All with the purpose of setting off the immune system alarm bells – whether the bacteria is there or not.

BACTERIAL ALARM BELLS

Our bodies actually like bacteria.

At least when they stay where they belong - in thegut.6-9In fact, inPart One,我们谈到了我们的消化免疫系统中的大部分时间,以便我们养活这种细菌。7,9-11

It’s when the bacteria - especially the less friendly types such as gram negative bacteria - get into our bodies that the immune system takes action. As a result, our immune cells have developed critical tools for the sole purpose of hunting down and identifying bacteria inside the body.

幸运的是,糟糕的革兰氏阴性细菌有一个说明。整个表面都是叫做的东西lipopolysaccharide(LPS).12

Antigen presenting cells (APCs) hunt down bacteria using two receptors for LPS called TLR-4 and CD14.12, 13When LPS binds TLR-4 and CD14, the immune system alarm bells go off.

The diagram below shows the basics of this sophisticated alarm system,14but the end result is simple. The immune system spins up andinflammationensues.

The Wheat Series Part 3: Setting Off the Bacterial Alarm Bells – With or Without the Bacteria | The Paleo Diet

小麦 - 伟大的细菌模仿者

字幕实际上仅部分准确。更好的描述可能是“小麦– the boy who cried bacterial wolf.”

The problem is our bodies never learn to ignore this particular boy.

Wheat has developed a variety of sophisticated techniques for activating the LPS response. But in some cases, it does it differently from LPS, bypassing key regulatory steps such as CD14 which would otherwise prevent inflammation in places we don’t want it.6,10

对这些机制的完整描述超出了本文的范围,可能是您的无聊极限。因此,以下只是练习料描述,但有很多期刊参考文献将使您最幸福地保持幽默。

MECHANISM 1: LET BACTERIA IN

Part Twogives an in depth description of how wheat opens up the消化道障碍并允许在我们的肠道中进入​​我们的身体。这包括我们的肠道细菌。15

The Wheat Series Part 3: Setting Off the Bacterial Alarm Bells – With or Without the Bacteria | The Paleo Diet

In other words, wheat actually lets the wolf into the chicken coop and then cries wolf.

MECHANISM 2: HOMEBREW LPS

Wheat contains its own LPS-like molecule, sometimes called LPSw, that has similar effects but admittedly isn’t as potent as the real thing.16,17在对小鼠的一项研究中,LPSW能够促进细菌免疫反应。17

MECHANISM 3: ATI’S

(No It’s Not a Computer Company)

At thebarrier of our gut是一种特殊类型的免疫细胞,称为树突细胞。不断对消化道进行抽样,它们是免疫系统的开/关开关。18Think of them as Paul Revere riding back to the immune system yelling “the bacteria are coming!”

Wheat contains molecules that very potently activates dendritic cells called α-Amylase/Trypsin Inhibitors (ATIs).19They act through TLR-4 on the dendrites. And sorry to those of you who love to say you’re “gluten-free” – ATIs, which exist in many grains, are found in a different part than gluten.

ATI的负责呼吁较长的病情Baker’s Asthmanamed so because it was common among people who worked with flour.20

机制4:跳过报警但得到响应

TLR-4 and CD14 are not strongly expressed in the gut immune system making it hard to sound the bacterial alarm in the gut.21-23In an area of the body that’s exposed to bacteria thousands of times each day, an inflammatory response isn’t something we want.21, 22

因此,它应该有关听到小麦已经开发了在不困扰TLR-4或CD14的情况下产生炎症反应的方法。

The ways wheat does it gets complex. We’ll just touch on them.

First, in several studies, small amounts of gluten were able to flip the dendritic cell’s “on switch” in mice and start an inflammatory response without touching TLR-4.24, 25

Another molecule in wheat (there’s a lot) called wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) can bind and pass right through the gut barrier to interact with immune cells on the other side. WGA then promotes a highly inflammatory response26, 27including turning dendritic cells on.

Finally, remember all those antigen presenting cells in the gut that avoid sounding the bacterial alarm bells by simply not expressing CD14?格里亚丁P.romotes something called IL-15 which is highly effective at activating APCs that don’t express CD14.28-33

And of a variety of foods tested, gliadin was the only one able to so effectively activate these cells.3.3.

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU PREPARE FOR AN INVASION WITHOUT THE INVASION?

That’s a lot of science and frankly we only just skimmed the surface. So here’s the point – wheat is amazingly effective at activating the bacterial defence mechanisms of our immune cells.

更重要的是,这种反应发生在每个人身上,而不仅仅是那些患有乳糜泻的人(虽然有证据表明它在腹腔里更加明显)。29

So what happens when our bodies mount a defense against bacteria that isn’t there? The answer to that question is the focus of the final part to this series. But the short answer is it creates a constant state of inflammation as long as we continue to eat wheat.3.4.那3.5

Recent research is now associating a state of constant inflammation with the onset of nearly all major chronic diseases3.6includingheart disease3.7Alzheimer’s disease3.8.diabetes3.9癌症40,41and overall morbidity.4.2

But the question remains does the inflammation that results from wheat inappropriately setting off the bacterial alarms also contribute to these conditions?

That’s a question we’ll hope to delve into in the next two parts. But fortunately, by eating a wheat-free史前饮食那it’s a question you may never have to worry about.

Read The Wheat Series Part 4: Home Invasion HERE

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